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More than 150 million people in the world are affected by depression, and the personal and societal costs of the disease are devastating. By 2020, depression is expected to be the second most common disease worldwide, second only to cardiovascular disease.

The causes of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are complex and not entirely well understood, but one thing is certain: its effects are frustrating and debilitating. Characterized by insurmountable fatigue that lasts for six months or longer and can’t be attributed to another medical condition, CFS causes a host of life-disrupting symptoms. These can include muscle pain, difficulty sleeping (or sleeping too much), and cognitive problems. Many people with CFS experience a worsening of symptoms with exercise.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. And, while treatments exist for it, many people do not respond fully to treatment. Prevention of depression has the potential to improve the health and quality of life of millions of people.

A 2015 Cochrane Review concluded that prenatal supplementation with vitamin D may reduce the risks for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, and preterm birth. On the other hand, a severe deficiency of vitamin D during pregnancy may result in congenital rickets or fractures in the newborn.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by demyelination of the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. The pathophysiology of MS is marked by immune dysregulation and inflammation in the central nervous system.

Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are the most common infectious illness in the United States and the most common reason for missing school or work. URIs spread most readily in settings where numerous people are in close contact.

Hypertension affects approximately 30% of adults in affluent countries, such as the United States and Spain. Hypertension becomes increasingly difficult to control with age, resulting in less than half of treated patients over the age of 60 achieving adequate blood pressure control.

On the surface, dry eye syndrome (DES) may sound like nothing more than a nuisance. But in fact, the pain and irritation it causes can significantly affect a person’s quality of life. In DES, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, the eye does not produce enough quality tears to stay lubricated and nourished. Tears are essential for clear vision and for eye health.

With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed from a progressive, fatal disease to a chronic inflammatory disease. As HIV-infected people live longer, the medical community is learning more about how both the disease and the antiretroviral therapy (ART) used to manage it affect different areas of health.

Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is marked by inflammation of the digestive tract lining. Crohn’s disease causes intense pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and malnutrition. The disease can affect different parts of the digestive tract, and it can be debilitating and life-threatening.

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