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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), accumulate in neuronal cell membranes of the brain. Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that these essential fatty acids might influence behavior and mood. The first systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the anxiolytic potential of omega-3 fatty acids was published in JAMA Network Open in 2018.

Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia characterize type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to mitochondrial damage and impaired mitochondrial oxidation of fats. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that can scavenge free radicals and protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. Some studies have reported that patients with diabetes have lower levels of CoQ10 than healthy individuals.

Children with neurodevelopmental disorders experience more problems with sleep than their neurotypical peers. Studies suggest that nocturnal secretion of melatonin is also lower in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Some studies suggest that melatonin supplementation might improve sleep in these children.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to problems with memory and cognition that are greater than what is expected with healthy aging. People with MCI have an increased risk of dementia and can benefit from preventive measures, such as nutritional approaches. Blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries are rich in flavonoid polyphenols called anthocyanins, which have previously shown promise in supporting cognitive function.

Vitamin D receptors are found on all organs involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the uterus. Studies of women receiving in-vitro fertilization (IVF) show that vitamin D improves endometrial receptivity and implantation. Studies in women not undergoing IVF mostly evaluate vitamin D levels in early pregnancy rather than preconception. Two small studies in non-IVF populations have suggested that preconception levels of vitamin D might relate to the risk of pregnancy loss.

Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative bacteria that inhabit the gastric mucosa and are associated with peptic ulcers and gastric malignancy. Standard treatment of H.pylori overgrowth is a triple therapy: two antibiotics plus a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) or bismuth. The most common antibiotics to treat H. pylori are metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, but drug resistance is increasingly a problem. Also, even with the PPIs or bismuth to protect the gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal side effects of triple therapy are problematic. 

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhea and is challenging to eradicate. Between 10% and 30% of patients experience recurrent CDI after a course of antibiotics. The most effective treatment for recurrent CDI is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), eradicating CDI with a single treatment in 60% to 90% of cases. In a randomized clinical trial, researchers tested whether delivery of oral FMT capsules would be as effective as delivery of FMT via colonoscopy.

Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Vitamin D binds receptors on breast epithelium to regulate cell cycle, promote differentiation, protect against cellular DNA damage, regulate cytokines, activate immune cells, and suppress inflammation. The current analysis investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and breast cancer across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations in women aged 55 and older.

The composition of gut microbiota is emerging as a risk factor for obesity, with studies reporting lower levels of Bifidobacterium and higher levels of Firmicutes in obese subjects than in lean subjects. Higher levels of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein have been detected in overweight and obese individuals, suggesting that intestinal permeability, subclinical endotoxemia, and low-grade inflammation mechanistically link changes in the gut microbiome to changes in metabolism and body weight.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and occurs on a continuum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The pathophysiology of NAFLD is thought to begin with insulin resistance and progress because of oxidative stress and inflammation. In the absence of pharmaceutical treatments for NAFLD, the mainstay approach to therapy is dietary modification, exercise, and weight loss. In addition, antioxidant supplementation has been explored as a therapeutic option in NAFLD. 

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