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Acne involves a variety of pathophysiologic processes, including stimulation of sebaceous glands by androgens, hyperkeratinization, obstruction of sebaceous follicles, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and metabolism of triglycerides into fatty acids in the sebum. Treatments include topical formulations (e.g., antibiotics, retinoids, and comedolytics) and systemic treatments (e.g., oral isotretinoin, oral antibiotics, spironolactone, and oral contraceptives). In addition, zinc is recognized for its therapeutic potential in treating acne vulgaris.

The gut microbiome modulates the immune system and intestinal endocrine signaling. It is becoming increasingly evident that the gut microbiome also modulates bone homeostasis—via mechanisms that include modulation of inflammation and osteoclast formation. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCCPTA 6475 has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in mice but has never been evaluated in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, researchers investigated whether L. reuteri 6475 could reduce bone loss in older women with low BMD.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, and liver failure. Along with the classic components of metabolic syndrome, the intestinal microbiome might also influence the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Increased intestinal inflammation and permeability are thought to allow the translocation of bacteria and bacterial-derived endotoxins, which stimulate an inflammatory cascade in hepatic tissue.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a common spice worldwide and has a long history of use in Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicine. Traditionally used to quell nausea or soothe digestion, modern science is discovering an array of ways that ginger might improve health. Some research suggests that ginger might modulate blood glucose and lipid levels—offering promise as a therapy for type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

Dyslipidemia, which can include elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), elevated triglycerides, or decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Garlic contains sulfur-containing compounds, which benefit cardiovascular health via numerous mechanisms. Among these mechanisms are antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, and anti-hyperlipidemic actions.

Chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic disorders. More specifically, increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are correlated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant nutrient that may reduce inflammation by scavenging free radicals or downregulating pro-inflammatory signaling cascades.

Linus Pauling stated in the 1960s, in his book Vitamin C and the Common Cold, that vitamin C could prevent and treat the common cold. This idea spread globally, despite a lack of evidence base. Since that time, some clinical trials have indicated that vitamin C might decrease the incidence or the duration of the common cold. Still, whether or not vitamin C should be recommended for self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections remains controversial. Researchers, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of the data in 2018.

It is estimated that 1 in 3 seniors die with Alzheimer’s disease or some other form of dementia. Studies show that the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (including beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) develop decades before symptoms of dementia appear. A growing body of research has identified various integrative strategies that may delay the onset or progression of dementia.

Cholesterol management continues to be a primary strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology recommend statin medications to lower cholesterol in select individuals. However, some patients are intolerant of statin medications, and others choose not to take them. Dietary supplements may offer an alternative approach to cholesterol management for these patients. One such dietary supplement is berberine.

Probiotics may mediate mood and cognition via the gut-brain axis. Human studies have found that probiotics decrease symptoms of depression associated with intestinal disease. Researchers in the Netherlands conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a multispecies probiotic on neurocognitive and emotional function.  

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