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Sepsis is associated with organ failure and a high mortality rate in intensive care units (ICUs). Depletion of vitamin C is common in patients with sepsis because of the scavenging of free radicals, and its depletion correlates inversely with survival. Intravenous (IV) vitamin C has recently been explored in clinical trials as a therapeutic option for critically ill patients with sepsis.

Olive oil contains numerous bioactive compounds that exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, including monounsaturated oleic acid and phenolic compounds (e.g., oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol). Although present in lower concentrations, triterpenic acids (e.g., oleanolic acid and maslinic acid) have also demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously studied only in cellular and animal models, the health benefits of olive oil triterpenes were first evaluated in humans in the NUTRAOLEUM study.

Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet pattern has been associated with numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from coronary heart disease and cancer. A 2018 meta-analysis found that the Mediterranean Diet was associated with a 21% reduction in the risk for hip fractures and was positively associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and femoral neck. The present cross-sectional study, published in Nutrients in 2019, investigated the association between adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and BMD in premenopausal women.   

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis. Affecting approximately 30% of the overall adult population, NAFLD is present in 65% to 85% of obese patients. Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and the degree of insulin resistance directly correlates with hepatic fat. Contributing factors to both insulin resistance and NAFLD include upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and adipokine secretion.

Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) generally resolves within 6 months of completing cancer treatment, but as many as 1 in 3 cancer survivors continue to experience CRF for 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. One of the mechanisms thought to contribute to CRF is chronic Inflammation, with research showing a link between an increased inflammatory state and worse CRF. Given that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to reduce inflammation, researchers conducted a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of omega-3 supplementation on CRF.

Magnesium is thought to support insulin sensitivity via numerous mechanisms. Magnesium facilitates the translocation of glucose transporter number 4 (GLUT 4) and enhances insulin receptor activity by activating tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation. Magnesium also acts as a mild calcium agonist, acting to reduce intracellular calcium and calcium-induced cell death. Lower intracellular magnesium concentrations are found in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the benefits of magnesium supplementation remain controversial in these patients.

Arterial stiffness is a measurement of vascular aging that only weakly relates to conventional cardiovascular risk factors but is an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events—especially in patients with metabolic syndrome. Contributing factors to the development of arterial stiffness include insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, both of which are modulated by the gut microbiome. In a study published in the European Heart Journal in 2018, researchers aimed to determine whether gut microbial composition was associated with arterial stiffness.

As a central characteristic of gout, hyperuricemia is defined as a serum uric acid concentration higher than 7.0 mg/dL. Hyperuricemia occurs as a result of an imbalance between uric acid synthesis and excretion but is thought to mostly be influenced by decreased renal excretion.

Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of cancer chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the incidence of oral mucositis in pediatric and adolescent patients is 3 times higher than in adults because of a higher rate of basal cell proliferation. Children who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk of developing oral mucositis.

During a stroke, reactive oxygen species are generated, which trigger inflammatory mediators, mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and neuronal death. Oxidative stress continues to play a role in ischemic brain injury following a cerebrovascular attack. Many of the parameters that serve as major risk factors for stroke (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and diabetes) are also mediated or exacerbated by oxidative stress. It has been suggested that stroke therapies should include modalities to mitigate the effects of reactive oxygen species over time.

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