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Cholesterol management continues to be a primary strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology recommend statin medications to lower cholesterol in select individuals. However, some patients are intolerant of statin medications, and others choose not to take them. Dietary supplements may offer an alternative approach to cholesterol management for these patients. One such dietary supplement is berberine.

Probiotics may mediate mood and cognition via the gut-brain axis. Human studies have found that probiotics decrease symptoms of depression associated with intestinal disease. Researchers in the Netherlands conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a multispecies probiotic on neurocognitive and emotional function.  

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), accumulate in neuronal cell membranes of the brain. Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that these essential fatty acids might influence behavior and mood. The first systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the anxiolytic potential of omega-3 fatty acids was published in JAMA Network Open in 2018.

Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia characterize type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to mitochondrial damage and impaired mitochondrial oxidation of fats. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that can scavenge free radicals and protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. Some studies have reported that patients with diabetes have lower levels of CoQ10 than healthy individuals.

Children with neurodevelopmental disorders experience more problems with sleep than their neurotypical peers. Studies suggest that nocturnal secretion of melatonin is also lower in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Some studies suggest that melatonin supplementation might improve sleep in these children.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to problems with memory and cognition that are greater than what is expected with healthy aging. People with MCI have an increased risk of dementia and can benefit from preventive measures, such as nutritional approaches. Blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries are rich in flavonoid polyphenols called anthocyanins, which have previously shown promise in supporting cognitive function.

Vitamin D receptors are found on all organs involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the uterus. Studies of women receiving in-vitro fertilization (IVF) show that vitamin D improves endometrial receptivity and implantation. Studies in women not undergoing IVF mostly evaluate vitamin D levels in early pregnancy rather than preconception. Two small studies in non-IVF populations have suggested that preconception levels of vitamin D might relate to the risk of pregnancy loss.

Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative bacteria that inhabit the gastric mucosa and are associated with peptic ulcers and gastric malignancy. Standard treatment of H.pylori overgrowth is a triple therapy: two antibiotics plus a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) or bismuth. The most common antibiotics to treat H. pylori are metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, but drug resistance is increasingly a problem. Also, even with the PPIs or bismuth to protect the gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal side effects of triple therapy are problematic. 

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhea and is challenging to eradicate. Between 10% and 30% of patients experience recurrent CDI after a course of antibiotics. The most effective treatment for recurrent CDI is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), eradicating CDI with a single treatment in 60% to 90% of cases. In a randomized clinical trial, researchers tested whether delivery of oral FMT capsules would be as effective as delivery of FMT via colonoscopy.

Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Vitamin D binds receptors on breast epithelium to regulate cell cycle, promote differentiation, protect against cellular DNA damage, regulate cytokines, activate immune cells, and suppress inflammation. The current analysis investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and breast cancer across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations in women aged 55 and older.

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