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Recent research has suggested that consumption of flavanols, compounds found naturally in tea, grapes, red wine, apples, and cocoa products, may improve cognitive function in older populations. To evaluate the effect of cocoa flavanols (CFs) on the cognitive abilities of an elderly cohort, researchers at the University of L'Aquila, Italy, conducted a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study and published their results in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Research has repeatedly found that patients using statins to manage cholesterol levels are more likely to gain weight, reduce their exercise output, and develop diabetes thanks to increases in glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose levels. Prior to this study, the long-term effects in healthy adults had not been measured, so the relationship between these outcomes and diabetic complications had not yet been determined.

As the world’s population ages, clinicians are continuing to search for ways to best promote brain health and help patients stave off such cognitive disorders as Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Studies have shown that diet has a significant impact on the aging brain, but the relationship between actual biomarkers of diet and the health of specific brain tissue has been a mystery.

Green tea (GT), made from the unfermented leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is replete with antioxidants known to support cardiac and metabolic health. Research has shown that the mechanism behind the health benefits of caffeinated GT is its catechin polyphenol content. But are these benefits limited only to caffeinated GT? In the first study of its kind, a research team examined the effect of decaffeinated GT extracts (dGTE) on fat oxidation, body composition, and exercise performance in recreationally active participants.

Caffeine is the most commonly consumed central nervous system stimulant in the United States, with more than 85% of US adults partaking of it every day. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the United States is approximately 18%. Is there a connection between the two? A study published in PLoS One may be the first to investigate the association between caffeine intake and ED and whether effects vary among comorbidities for ED.

Many patients with type 2 diabetes are unsure whether they should eat fruit. True, fruit has necessary antioxidants and fiber, but in general it also contains far more simple carbohydrates than vegetables do. A study published in the British Medical Journal aimed to determine whether, to what degree, specific fruits are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

New mothers are often advised to boost their omega-3 fatty acid levels, especially if they limited their fish intake during pregnancy. A specific recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is often recommended as DHA is necessary to strengthen neurological function in the infant.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a long-term complication of type 2 diabetes that causes nerve damage so severe that quality of life in these patients plummets. Considering that most type 2 diabetics are also deficient in vitamin D and that low levels of the nutrient are associated with DPN severity, a research team from Kuwait investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on DPN.

Poor semen quality is leading cause of male infertility, and men who are exposed to pesticides occupationally or environmentally have been shown to have lower semen quality. But what effect does exposure to pesticides through diet have on male infertility? A study published in the journal Human Reproduction is the first to consider that question and offers some sobering conclusions.

Coenzyme Q10 is essential to energy production in the human body, and deficiencies in this nutrient can lead to dysfunction in many systems, including the cardiovascular system. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are especially vulnerable to CoQ10 deficiency; in fact, few CHF patients have adequate serum levels even with CoQ10 supplementation.

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