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Yogurt is a rich source of calcium, magnesium, B vitamins, protein, branched-chain amino acids, bioactive peptides, and probiotics—all of which might contribute to musculoskeletal health. Results of the 12- year Framingham Offspring Study showed that yogurt intake was associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and had a weak protective effect against hip fracture. In a 2016 study, published by Laird et al, researchers further investigated the associations between yogurt intake and BMD, bone biomarkers, and physical function.

Fish oil is a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fatty acids that incorporate into platelet cell membranes after ingestion. As EPA replaces arachidonic acid in platelet cell membranes, plasma thromboxane B2 decreases, inhibiting platelet aggregation. A randomized controlled trial, published in 2007 in the Lancet, reported that EPA supplementation significantly increased adverse bleeding events in hypercholesterolemic patients. Because of the potential for fish oil to increase bleeding risk, it has been suggested that patients should discontinue fish oil supplementation before surgery or other invasive procedures. In a systematic review published in 2017, Begtrup et al investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on hemostasis in healthy subjects and in those undergoing surgery.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of liver conditions that begin with simple hepatic steatosis and can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD begins with lipid deposition and progresses to involve oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. NAFLD is increasingly common, with a prevalence of 50% to 90% in obese individuals and a prevalence that exceeds 70% in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Arterial stiffness increases with age, is significantly increased in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Flavanol-enriched cocoa has been shown to improve vascular endothelial function, induce vasodilation, and reduce blood pressure in numerous studies. Cocoa has also been shown to reduce arterial stiffness in healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults. To assess whether the frequency of cocoa intake influences its effect on arterial stiffness, researchers Okamoto et al conducted a randomized, parallel-group study in postmenopausal women.

Magnesium acts as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes in critical biochemical pathways, including those related to bone health. Magnesium stabilizes formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, contributing to higher bone mass. Because magnesium is required as an enzymatic cofactor for the function of parathyroid hormone (PTH), magnesium deficiency impedes release of PTH and contributes to PTH resistance at target organs. Decreased activity of PTH contributes to vitamin D deficiency, which in turn impairs calcium metabolism leading to weaker bones. Magnesium deficiency also decreases osteoblast growth, promotes oxidative stress, and perpetuates inflammation – all of which contribute to decreased bone integrity.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. And, while treatments exist for it, many people do not respond fully to treatment. Prevention of depression has the potential to improve the health and quality of life of millions of people.

Gestational diabetes is primarily managed with diet, with more advanced cases requiring insulin therapy. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a natural compound found in green tea extract, has demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in animal studies. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, researchers Zhang et al. evaluated the effects of EGCG supplementation on maternal symptoms and neonatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes.

The discovery that zinc lozenges might shorten the duration of the common cold occurred by chance, when common cold symptoms disappeared in a 3-year old girl a few hours after she slowly dissolved a zinc tablet in her mouth rather than immediately swallowing it. Her father, George Eby, conducted the first randomized controlled trial of zinc lozenges. He showed that zinc gluconate lozenges, providing 207mg per day of elemental zinc, significantly shortened the duration of the common cold. That was in 1984.

Depression is associated with impaired cognitive function and, more specifically, impaired executive function. Executive function refers to working memory, problem solving, planning, attention, inhibitory control, and other cognitive roles that ultimately influence behavior. It is thought that impaired executive function maintains symptoms of depression and that depression further impairs executive function. Childhood and adolescence are critical times for the development of executive function, making young people particularly susceptible to the long-term cognitive effects of depression.

Thomas Edison patented the first commercial light bulb in 1879, forever changing the human experience of night. Light exposure serves as an environmental signal to biological clocks, with darkness stimulating the production of melatonin, which initiates physiologic changes in the cells, tissues, and organ systems. Outdoor and indoor lighting both contain short wavelength emissions that can disrupt melatonin production. The World Health Organization has declared shift work a probable carcinogen, and the American Medical Association established guidance in 2012 and 2016 to reduce the harmful effects of high intensity street lighting.

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