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Stunting of fetal growth is a major health challenge in poor communities worldwide. Shorter newborn length and lower birth weight are associated with an increased disease burden throughout childhood and long-term. Although the environmental factors contributing to stunting are complex, maternal undernutrition undoubtedly compromises fetal growth.  

Almost 45% of the worldwide population has hypertension. Hypertension remains poorly controlled in many patients, with high rates of no treatment or under-treatment. While endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, not all of the involved mechanisms are clear.

Tea intake has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health, memory, cognition, and mood. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of tea intake on direct measurements of brain structure and function. In a study published in the journal Aging, researchers explored both global and regional brain connectivity based on structural and functional imaging in older adults.

More than 30% of the US population over the age of 40 is estimated to take daily, low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) for cardiovascular prevention. However, the chronic intake of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as aspirin, is associated with damage to the gastric and small intestinal mucosa—contributing to lesions, ulcers, perforations, or hemorrhage.  

Obesity is strongly associated with the development of breast cancer, resistance to treatment, and poor survival outcomes. Women with higher body mass indexes (BMIs) tend to have increased accumulation of free fatty acids in the liver and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance activates the production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), which in turn can promote cancer cell growth and proliferation.

Patients who are critically ill have low plasma levels of ascorbic acid. What’s more, low plasma ascorbic acid correlates with a higher risk of multiple organ failure. Therefore, both animal and human studies have explored the effects of ascorbic acid administration during critical illness.

The hormonal changes of menopause modify the levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in the brain and can contribute to some of the classic symptoms of depression. Women can experience irritability, melancholy, and emotional lability. In addition to hormonal changes, other factors that may influence depression risk include nutrient deficiencies or decreases in circulating antioxidants.

Antidepressant medications are routinely prescribed for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that were published in 2017 showed that 1 in 8 people over the age of 12 in the United States had taken antidepressants during the previous month. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed class of antidepressants and a first-line treatment for depression.

Locally advanced lung cancer often requires sequential or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. This combination therapy can cause severe side effects that prolong or interrupt the treatment. One of the most common side effects of chemoradiotherapy in patients with lung cancer is acute radiation-induced esophagitis (ARIE). Symptoms of ARIE include pain, dysphagia, nausea, and anorexia. Severe ARIE can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss. 

Whether fiber helps or hinders bone health is a subject of debate. Some professional guidelines for osteoporosis advise against the consumption of fiber because of its potential to interfere with calcium absorption. On the other hand, there is a plausible mechanism to suggest that fiber might actually facilitate calcium absorption by producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and expanding the intestinal lumen for a larger absorptive surface.

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