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Obesity-related chronic inflammation is marked by elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These mediators adversely affect endothelial function by raising levels of endothelial-derived compounds, like plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Higher PAI-1 is correlated with other markers of endothelial dysfunction, such as increased intima media thickness and arterial stiffness index.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as hepatic steatosis resulting from no secondary cause, ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with the potential to progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Medical management of NAFLD relies on diet, exercise, and weight loss, with no approved pharmacologic interventions. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively investigated to supplement dietary interventions for NAFLD.

The main strategies to prevent metabolic diseases are lifestyle and dietary interventions, including an emphasis on low-glycemic or low-glycemic-load meals. Meals with a high glycemic load produce a higher blood glucose response and adverse metabolic consequences, including high insulin levels, reactive hypoglycemia, and eventual insulin resistance.

Age-related cognitive decline, defined as non-pathological yet meaningful decreases in memory and mental abilities, can develop with advancing age in any person. Epidemiological studies suggest that better nutritional habits are associated with lower rates of cognitive decline, and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables have specifically been associated with better cognitive function in older adults.

Osteoporosis-related fractures affect as many as half of all women and a quarter of all men over the age of 50. Bisphosphonate medications have been shown to reduce fracture risk, but their use is limited by fears of side effects and a recommended duration of use no longer than 3-5 years. Safer options that can be taken for more extended periods of time are needed to reduce bone loss and fracture risk in older adults.