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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis. Affecting approximately 30% of the overall adult population, NAFLD is present in 65% to 85% of obese patients. Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and the degree of insulin resistance directly correlates with hepatic fat. Contributing factors to both insulin resistance and NAFLD include upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and adipokine secretion.

Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) generally resolves within 6 months of completing cancer treatment, but as many as 1 in 3 cancer survivors continue to experience CRF for 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. One of the mechanisms thought to contribute to CRF is chronic Inflammation, with research showing a link between an increased inflammatory state and worse CRF. Given that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to reduce inflammation, researchers conducted a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of omega-3 supplementation on CRF.

Magnesium is thought to support insulin sensitivity via numerous mechanisms. Magnesium facilitates the translocation of glucose transporter number 4 (GLUT 4) and enhances insulin receptor activity by activating tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation. Magnesium also acts as a mild calcium agonist, acting to reduce intracellular calcium and calcium-induced cell death. Lower intracellular magnesium concentrations are found in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the benefits of magnesium supplementation remain controversial in these patients.

Arterial stiffness is a measurement of vascular aging that only weakly relates to conventional cardiovascular risk factors but is an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events—especially in patients with metabolic syndrome. Contributing factors to the development of arterial stiffness include insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, both of which are modulated by the gut microbiome. In a study published in the European Heart Journal in 2018, researchers aimed to determine whether gut microbial composition was associated with arterial stiffness.