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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), accumulate in neuronal cell membranes of the brain. Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that these essential fatty acids might influence behavior and mood. The first systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the anxiolytic potential of omega-3 fatty acids was published in JAMA Network Open in 2018.

Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia characterize type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to mitochondrial damage and impaired mitochondrial oxidation of fats. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that can scavenge free radicals and protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. Some studies have reported that patients with diabetes have lower levels of CoQ10 than healthy individuals.

Children with neurodevelopmental disorders experience more problems with sleep than their neurotypical peers. Studies suggest that nocturnal secretion of melatonin is also lower in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Some studies suggest that melatonin supplementation might improve sleep in these children.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to problems with memory and cognition that are greater than what is expected with healthy aging. People with MCI have an increased risk of dementia and can benefit from preventive measures, such as nutritional approaches. Blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries are rich in flavonoid polyphenols called anthocyanins, which have previously shown promise in supporting cognitive function.