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Linus Pauling stated in the 1960s, in his book Vitamin C and the Common Cold, that vitamin C could prevent and treat the common cold. This idea spread globally, despite a lack of evidence base. Since that time, some clinical trials have indicated that vitamin C might decrease the incidence or the duration of the common cold. Still, whether or not vitamin C should be recommended for self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections remains controversial. Researchers, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of the data in 2018.

It is estimated that 1 in 3 seniors die with Alzheimer’s disease or some other form of dementia. Studies show that the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (including beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) develop decades before symptoms of dementia appear. A growing body of research has identified various integrative strategies that may delay the onset or progression of dementia.

Cholesterol management continues to be a primary strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology recommend statin medications to lower cholesterol in select individuals. However, some patients are intolerant of statin medications, and others choose not to take them. Dietary supplements may offer an alternative approach to cholesterol management for these patients. One such dietary supplement is berberine.

Probiotics may mediate mood and cognition via the gut-brain axis. Human studies have found that probiotics decrease symptoms of depression associated with intestinal disease. Researchers in the Netherlands conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a multispecies probiotic on neurocognitive and emotional function.