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As a central characteristic of gout, hyperuricemia is defined as a serum uric acid concentration higher than 7.0 mg/dL. Hyperuricemia occurs as a result of an imbalance between uric acid synthesis and excretion but is thought to mostly be influenced by decreased renal excretion.

Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of cancer chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the incidence of oral mucositis in pediatric and adolescent patients is 3 times higher than in adults because of a higher rate of basal cell proliferation. Children who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk of developing oral mucositis.

During a stroke, reactive oxygen species are generated, which trigger inflammatory mediators, mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and neuronal death. Oxidative stress continues to play a role in ischemic brain injury following a cerebrovascular attack. Many of the parameters that serve as major risk factors for stroke (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and diabetes) are also mediated or exacerbated by oxidative stress. It has been suggested that stroke therapies should include modalities to mitigate the effects of reactive oxygen species over time.

Acne involves a variety of pathophysiologic processes, including stimulation of sebaceous glands by androgens, hyperkeratinization, obstruction of sebaceous follicles, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and metabolism of triglycerides into fatty acids in the sebum. Treatments include topical formulations (e.g., antibiotics, retinoids, and comedolytics) and systemic treatments (e.g., oral isotretinoin, oral antibiotics, spironolactone, and oral contraceptives). In addition, zinc is recognized for its therapeutic potential in treating acne vulgaris.

The gut microbiome modulates the immune system and intestinal endocrine signaling. It is becoming increasingly evident that the gut microbiome also modulates bone homeostasis—via mechanisms that include modulation of inflammation and osteoclast formation. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCCPTA 6475 has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in mice but has never been evaluated in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, researchers investigated whether L. reuteri 6475 could reduce bone loss in older women with low BMD.