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Oxidative stress is implicated in male infertility. Sperm are susceptible to oxidative damage because their plasma membranes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and have low concentrations of scavenging enzymes. Although antioxidants are present in the semen of healthy men, lower levels are present in infertile men. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the semen correlate with sperm DNA damage, which is the rationale for using antioxidants to improve sperm quality.

L-theanine is a compound found in green tea (Camellia sinensis) that has been shown in animal and human studies to modulate stress and cognition. In human electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, l-theanine was found to modulate alpha activity and attentional tasks. Human studies have also suggested that l-theanine may benefit the mental state and sleep quality. However, most human studies have evaluated only the effects of acute l-theanine administration.

Nearly half of all deaths from gastric cancer occur in China, with a rural county in Shandong Province experiencing one of the highest mortality rates from gastric cancer in the world. In 1995, the Shandong Intervention Trial was initiated in this rural area to evaluate the potential of 3 different interventions for preventing gastric cancer.

Epidemiological studies suggest that frequent apple intake is inversely associated with acute coronary syndrome, total cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality. Apples are rich in proanthocyanidins and other polyphenols, which can beneficially affect the lipid profile and inflammatory response. Apples are also a good source of the soluble fiber pectin, which not only affects transit time but also modulates lipid and glucose metabolism.

Type 2 diabetes is not only marked by insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar but also systemic inflammation. Previous studies in patients with diabetes have found systemic inflammation to be associated with elevated levels of the gut-derived endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is produced by gram-negative intestinal bacteria and passes into circulation when the intestinal barrier is compromised.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have demonstrated a benefit for depression. A previous meta-analysis suggested PUFAs that are mainly EPA have greater efficacy for depression than those that are mainly DHA. However, the most effective percentages and dosages for depression are not well defined. To provide an update on the therapeutic effect of EPA and DHA supplementation for depression, researchers conducted a meta-analysis.

Stunting of fetal growth is a major health challenge in poor communities worldwide. Shorter newborn length and lower birth weight are associated with an increased disease burden throughout childhood and long-term. Although the environmental factors contributing to stunting are complex, maternal undernutrition undoubtedly compromises fetal growth.  

Almost 45% of the worldwide population has hypertension. Hypertension remains poorly controlled in many patients, with high rates of no treatment or under-treatment. While endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, not all of the involved mechanisms are clear.

Tea intake has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health, memory, cognition, and mood. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of tea intake on direct measurements of brain structure and function. In a study published in the journal Aging, researchers explored both global and regional brain connectivity based on structural and functional imaging in older adults.

More than 30% of the US population over the age of 40 is estimated to take daily, low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) for cardiovascular prevention. However, the chronic intake of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as aspirin, is associated with damage to the gastric and small intestinal mucosa—contributing to lesions, ulcers, perforations, or hemorrhage.  

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