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Whether fiber helps or hinders bone health is a subject of debate. Some professional guidelines for osteoporosis advise against the consumption of fiber because of its potential to interfere with calcium absorption. On the other hand, there is a plausible mechanism to suggest that fiber might actually facilitate calcium absorption by producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and expanding the intestinal lumen for a larger absorptive surface.

Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) potentially targets multiple aspects of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). L-menthol in peppermint oil blocks calcium channels in smooth muscle to exert an antispasmodic effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Peppermint oil also has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulating effects.

A higher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. Many of the benefits of fruits and vegetables are attributable to the flavonoids they contain. Flavonoids are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that benefit overall health.

Cordyceps sinensis is a rare fungus that grows in high-latitude areas of China. Cordyceps has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners have used cordyceps for lung conditions for centuries. Modern capsule preparations of cordyceps in China include Jin Shui Bao and Bai Ling. These products are commonly used to support patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Despite medical advancements, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting remain some of the worst side effects of cancer therapy. Not only is it uncomfortable for the patient, but it can also contribute to malnourishment and electrolyte imbalance. Severe nausea and vomiting may necessitate a reduction in chemotherapy dosage and compromise the efficacy of treatment.

Psyllium is commonly used for constipation because it retains water in the small intestine, softening the stool and increasing stool frequency. Psyllium husk also contains oligosaccharides, such as arabinose and xylose, which have limited digestibility in humans but can be metabolized by intestinal microbiota. These oligosaccharides give psyllium prebiotic potential, with effects that may include increased growth of beneficial bacteria and increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). 

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include obesity, type 2 diabetes, and living at high latitude. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is primarily synthesized with exposure to ultraviolet B sunlight. However, it is not known whether summer sun exposure is sufficient to achieve adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in at-risk populations.

As many as one in 3 people will be affected by anxiety symptoms during their lifetime. A growing body of research suggests that the intestinal flora can modulate anxiety and mood via the gut-brain axis (a communication network that involves the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems). However, whether or not anxiety can be improved by modulating the gut microbiota is still up for debate. That is the question researchers aimed to answer with a systematic review published in 2019.

Cordyceps sinensis is a wild mushroom that grows in the Himalaya Mountains in Tibet and the high regions of China. Cordyceps is well known for its immunomodulatory effects in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the availability of cordyceps has been limited because of the difficult and specific growing conditions it requires.

The population of adults over the age of 65 is expected to double by the year 2050, with mobility limitations becoming an increasing concern. Identifying modifiable risk factors for mobility limitations and disabilities could help reduce the burden that mobility problems pose to individuals and society.

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