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Complex training is a system of exercises that is designed to increase strength and power. It involves pairing exercises back-to-back, starting with a heavy resistance exercise (squats, for instance) followed after a brief pause by a light, explosive exercise using the same muscles (like squat jumps, in this example). The theory is that the heavy exercise primes the muscles and enhances their performance. This phenomenon is known as postactivation potentiation (PAP).

With malignant melanoma rates on the rise, many people aim to limit their sun exposure. Episodic sunburns and excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays are known to increase malignant melanoma risk, so covering up and staying out of the sun seem like logical ways to protect oneself.

Long-haul air travel—between continents, for instance—is stressful. It can leave travellers fatigued, anxious, and immune-suppressed. The cabin environment plays a role in this; cabin ozone levels, oxygen pressure, and aircraft engine oil additives all have been implicated in the unpleasant side effects of air travel.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of fat in the liver that can’t be attributed to alcohol use or another secondary cause (such as viral hepatitis, genetic disorder or medication). It is strongly associated with obesity and diabetes, and its occurrence is on the rise.

Omega 3 fatty acids are good for health—especially heart health. So good, in fact, that current dietary guidelines encourage people to consume at least half a gram per day of a combination of the omega 3s eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). That recommendation goes up to 1 gram a day for people with diagnosed cardiovascular disease.

Hypertension may affect more than 90 percent of individuals during their lifetime, and it is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events—both fatal and nonfatal. Research indicates that lowering blood pressure reduces risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular deaths.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a very common issue, affecting nearly all women at some point during their reproductive years. The condition, which occurs during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, is marked by mood swings, anxiety, aches and cramps, appetite changes, food cravings, and decreased interest in activities normally found enjoyable. Symptoms range from moderate to severe.

IBS is often considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Therefore, chronic diarrhea is often worked up by colonoscopy to rule out IBD. This is expensive, not loved by patients and, rarely, can have adverse events. In pre-clinical research a new mechanism for IBS is emerging. 

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is far more severe and debilitating than the more common mild-to-moderate depression. MDD is a mental disorder that causes pervasive and persistent depressed mood, often marked by a loss of interest or ability to take pleasure activities one normally enjoys. Some 20 percent of the population will experience MDD at some point in their lives.

By age 65, approximately 1 percent of adults are affected by dementia. At age 90, that percentage has increased to 33 percent. By the year 2040, dementia is expected to affect more than 80 million people worldwide.

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