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The World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF) Continuous Update Project published a review of evidence in 2011 related to risk factors for colorectal cancer. The report concluded that red and processed meat, alcoholic drinks in men, body fatness, abdominal fatness, and adult attained height increased the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas physical activity and foods containing fiber decreased the risk of colorectal cancer. The report suggested probable protective effects of alcoholic drinks in women, garlic, milk, and calcium.

Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in nearly 50% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with IBD severity and complications, leading researchers to suspect that vitamin D may influence the clinical course of IBD.

Metabolic syndrome is defined as a combination of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia but is also characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress—collectively increasing a person’s risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that nutritional supplementation aimed at reducing the effects of inflammation and oxidative damage might be an appealing option for patients with metabolic syndrome.

Adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower risk of hip fracture. Olive oil is one of the primary fats consumed in the Mediterranean diet, and its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols may partly explain the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on bone health.